Zuckerman, George

An Inventory for: N-1979-012

NWT Archives
Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre
P.O. Box 1320
Yellowknife, NT X1A 2L9

Description

Fonds Title:
Zuckerman, George

Accession Number:
N-1979-012

Title:
This accession consists of 68 black and white photographs, most of which are believed to have been taken by George Zuckerman to illustrate the book "The Great Mackenzie". The prints feature river transportation, the Canol Project, Norman Wells, Fort Smith, Fort Simpson, Fort Providence, and Aklavik.

Access restrictions:
No access restrictions.

Copyright restrictions:
Possible copyright restrictions.

Date Range:
[1946]

N-1979-012: 0001
The Mackenzie Awakens. Passengers aboard the S.S. Mackenzie River watching their passage with heavily laden barges going through the ramparts. The right bank of the perpendicular wall is seen in the background. [From book The Great Mackenzie, by George Zuckerman]
1946


N-1979-012: 0002
The Mackenzie Awakens. Hudson's Bay Company shipyards at the prairie, Waterways [Alberta]. Dredge #250 is being fabricated by the Standard Iron Works for the Dominon Dept. of Transport, alongside the retired HBC river boat "Northland Echo".
1946


N-1979-012: 0003
The Mackenzie Awakens. In preparation for the shipping season, Mackenzie River tugs are carefully overhauled and painted. Before them is a season's hard work. Here the Pelly Lake tug of the Hudson's Bay Copany is seen in the shadow of huge loading cranes at the Waterways freight docks. These cranes can lift whole carloads of supplies onto the barges.
1946


N-1979-012: 0004
The Mackenzie Awakens. Indians gathered along the Mackenzie River banks at Fort McPherson watching the arrival of the first 1946 boat and barges bringing their annual supplies from the south.
1946


N-1979-012: 0005
The farther north the boats move along the river to the Arctic Ocean, the less freight remains. Here at Fort Wrigley, the tonnage of the sternwheeler, S.S. Mackenzie River, and her three barges has been substantially reduced. They are seen in this photo getting ready to push off with lightened loads and smoother waters for the next stop at Norman Wells.
1946


N-1979-012: 0006
This photo shows the wooden trade and hoist method used by the Hudson's Bay Company warehouse at Fort Good Hope to facilitate hauling supplies from the boat up the steep embankment.
1946


N-1979-012: 0007
Now and then the freight aboard the barges catches fire from the cinders falling from smoke stacks on tarpaulins covering the cargo. Here the first mate on the S.S. Athabasca River extinguishes such a fire with hose connection.
1946


N-1979-012: 0008
The S.S. Mackenzie River and her three barges come to rest at Aklavik, last settlement of the Mackenzie River transport system. Aerial view of the valiant little paddlewheeler nad the barges she has pushed safely through 1200 miles of "lower river" from Fort Smith, bringing annual cargos for the maintenance of continued developments in this and other northern remote settlements along the river.
1946


N-1979-012: 0009
Ghost scene at the yard barracks of the former U.S. Army CANOL oil project. In the foreground may be seen the skeleton foundations of razed barracks, while in the background (right) are piles of dismantled 'igloos' in which workers and soldiers slept, now purchased by the Canadian Governemnt. The USED initials on the 'tombstone' in left background stand for the United States Engineering Department.
1946


N-1979-012: 0010
Storage tanks for Yellowknife. [on barges]
1946


N-1979-012: 0011
This photograph shows the turbulent wake of the boat and barges that have just entered the mouth of the ramparts gorge going down north west with the current. Coming back up south against the current when the river is low one can almost see the water running uphill. The speed of the current is so fast that even the most powerful river boats cannot make more than one mile per hour, and at times the boats actually move backwards with their engines going full force.
1946


N-1979-012: 0012
Mighty is the Mackenzie and imposing her tributaries. The Slave River, more than 1500 miles from the Arctic Ocean, is broad as a lake. The paddle wheel churns the water and virgin canada slowly unrolls before the traveller. So much wasted space. (R.A. Davies - The Great Mackenzie p.21)
1946


N-1979-012: 0013
Every 12 hours or so, the paddle wheeler veers towards the shore. Time to refuel. The crew hauls out the gangways and runs ashore to sling wood aboard. All along the river winter crews of lumberjacks cut wood and pile it in convenient spots for summer use.
1946


N-1979-012: 0014
Peaceful and even flowing, the Athabasca River, like the Mackenzie, has never really been tamed. The water course is hazardous. In the fall of 1945 this barge struck a snag in the river bottom and sank in three minutes. The cargo was recovered. But tales are told of northern suffering in the days before the aeroplane when a sunken barge meant hunger or starvation.
1946


N-1979-012: 0015
When the wind is high, the flat bottom barges and boats crossing Great Slave Lake must wait until the weather settles. This photo shows the S.S. Mackenzie River and three barges wind-bound for three days off Burnt Island. In 1942 this same boat was wind-bound here for 14 days. Many barges have been lost on Great Slave Lake, their rotting carcasses occasionally finding belated haven on island beaches.
1946


N-1979-012: 0016
A great setting for pioneering is the confluence of the Mackenzie and the Liard. For a hundred miles the waters run in the same channel without intermingling. The boat is quiet and peaceful in this surrounding. It has accepted the silence of the north, and for the time being, has made it its own. R.A. Davies The Great Mackenzie p.31
1946


N-1979-012: 0017
Even rest hours may mean work for the busy S.S. Mackenzie River. The inhabitants asked the captain and the company agent to make a side trip for them. Here the doughty boat returns to unload her barges and push off. The Arctic Ocean is still more than a thousand miles away. R.A. Davies. The Great Mackenzie p. 32.
1946


N-1979-012: 0018
Entrance to the Ramparts of the Mackenzie River, below the Arctic Circle, in Canada's north.
1946


N-1979-012: 0019
As the Mackenzie River nears its great elta on the Arctic Ocean, the water becomes very shallow and threatened with dangerous sanbars. The river also changes its course often and constant soundings are necessary bu men on the leading barges, as shown in this photo. Pole markings represent a foot. Five feet a warning. Four demands full stop and reverse of boat and barges. 'Eight', half seven', 'six' mournfully and rythmically cry the men at the head of the barges as monotonously they sink in and draw out their surrounding poles.
1946


N-1979-012: 0020
After crossing Lake Athabasca the upper riverboats enter Slave River where the first stop is the wood piles prepared by special crews during the previous winter for the summers season river transport and fueling. It's labourious work, but the most practical process unter these conditions.
1946


N-1979-012: 0021
This year oil installations are being constructed throughout the northern mining towns, especially at Yelowknife. Here tanks are awaiting trans-shipment at the Waterways railhead.
1946


N-1979-012: 0022
This photo shows barrels of oil being loaded on Northern Transport barges at Norman Wells for shipment to Yellowknife and its gold mines.
1946


N-1979-012: 0023
Girls who are qualified teachers and nurses are usually among the passengers on the S.S. Athabasca River each year. They are going to the northern missions, and are a leading contributing factr in northern developments. Aboard the S.S. Athabasca River they appear as an integral part of the season's first shipment north, alongside wood piles, oil drums and tarpaulen cargo.
1946


N-1979-012: 0024
The S.S. Mackenzie River and barges at the beginning of the famous arctic delta of the river, enroute to Fort McPherson from Arctic Red River.
1946


N-1979-012: 0025
Barney Goodman, skipper of the Hudson's Bay Company boat, Dease Lake, for five years, seen here at his wheel while loading at Fort Smith.
1946


N-1979-012: 0026
This photo shows a boy scout enrollment ceremony at the All Saints Anglican School, Aklavik, NWT. Boy scout training plays its part in the life of the boys at the school, as does the training of Girl Guides, Brownies and Cubs. Both the cubs and scouts were present for this ceremony. The troup is led bu two RCMP, one as scoutmaster, the other as cubmaster. Young Tadditt, a Louchoux indian boy, is seen being enrolled by the scoutmaster, while the cubmaster looks on with a stern eye. The boys learn a great deal from scouting and enjoy the planned outings during spring and summer months.
1946


N-1979-012: 0027
Trucks, caterpillars and other road building machinery and equipment fill the 'cemetery' that was the reat military CANOL oil project, which awakened the far north during the war and showed what could be done on this potential frontier. Now the crews and engineers are gone, leaving everything behind to rust and become useless for any further post war development.
1946


N-1979-012: 0028
After 2 days journey down Athabasca River and across Lake Athabasca, the 'upper' river reaches Fort Fitzgerald, site of one of the world's most famous remaining portages. A series of 4 dangerous rapids block the river. Passengers and cargo travel by highway for eighteen miles to Fort Smith to change to the 'lower" river boat. The S.S. Athabasca River is seen here next to the Hudson's Bay Company warehouse at Fort Fitzgerald dock, its journey finished. In a few hours it will head up south.
1946


N-1979-012: 0029
"Washington may scrap complete CANOL project". One of the strangest industrial developments of the war - the 597 mile pipeline and $133,000 refinery of the CANOL Oil Project nestling under the rim of the Canadian arctic- is going under the auctioneers hammer. CANOL is being put up for sale by the American government in the hope private interests will purchase it, but ex-Secretary of State, James Byrnes has said in Washington that he doubts if a purchaser for the costly white elephant will be found. If none is found, the expensive project will be scrapped. Storage tanks of the former CanOl oil project, now surrounded by abandoned vehicles, are a grim reminder of what might have been done in the north, 1120 miles from the railroad and 700 nmiles fromt eh Arctic Ocean. During the war it was determined that CANOL was a potential for more oil than all the other Canadian oilfields combined.
1946


N-1979-012: 0030
More than $250,000,000 was spent on the CANOL project. Modern machines and vehicles were brought up from the south to do the job. Most have remained behind in a fantastic graveyard not only of CANOL, but of many northern hopes. United States Army trucks, their tires removed, stand on wooden blocks in endless rows at Norman Wells and Camp CANOL across the river. The elements take their toll. The old broom reflects the desolation. R.A. Davies. The Great Mackenzie. P. 65
1946


N-1979-012: 0031
One of the strangest industrial developments of the war - the 597 mile pipeline and $133,000 ,000 refinery of the CANOL Oil Project nestling under the rim of the Canadian arctic- is going under the auctioneers hammer. CANOL is being put up for sale by the American government in the hope private interests will purchase it, but ex-Secretary of State, James Byrnes has said in Washington that he doubts if a purchaser for the costly white elephant will be found. If none is found, the expensive project will be scrapped. Picture shows pipelaying equipment left from the construction days of the CANOL oil project. This is part of the equipment which laid nearly 600 miles of pipeline from Norman Wells to the Pacific Ocean in answer to wartime demands for oil for military operations in Alaska and Pacific Zones, one of the most difficult construction jobs in history, and one without precident. Everything required experimenting, a costly system of trial and error.
1946


N-1979-012: 0032
Picture shows entrance to Camp CANOL, former U.S. Government military reservation, wartime headquarters of United States Army operations engaged in building the 400 mile road and pipeline from Norman Oil Wells on the Mackenzie River to Whitehorse and the Pacific Coast. These pictures were taken late August 1946. Today the desolate area is deep in snow.
1946


N-1979-012: 0033
Only the RCMP is on the job at Norman Wells together with a small group of workers and engineers. The RCMP launch shown in the photograph set out on a sad mission to recover the Norman Wells employee Willard Hill who drowned in the Mackenzie River on June 30th, 1946. Somehow a particularly suitable place to end ones days. An idle place, an empty place. R.A. Davies, The Great Mackenzie p.68
1946


N-1979-012: 0034
At Fort Providence agriculture engrains itself from year to year and northern gardens operated by the Catholic Mission raise an increasing variety of vegetables. Although this photograph was taken at the end of June, the vegetables are just beginning to appear, and even then one row of tender shoots is still being protected from a possible chill by empty cans. R.A. Davies. The Great Mackenzie p.72
1946


N-1979-012: 0035
The new, modern, well equiped St. Marguerite hospital established by the R.C. Church at Fort Simpson. The importance of the medical work being carried on by the church in these remote areas in the NWT cannot be over-estimated. Work too long neglected by the Canadian Government. In the foreground is seen the mission garden, one of the finest in the entire north land, which provides a good portion of the fresh vegetables used by the hospital patients.
1946


N-1979-012: 0036
Epitomizing the role of the church in the north is this photograph of Father Alphonse Mansox of the church of St. Isadore of Fort Smith teaching his young charge, Jimmie Mercredi the art of tending the soil. Father Mansox is a member of the Society of Oblates. R.A. davies. The Great Mackenzie p. 106
1946


N-1979-012: 0037
The "Little red schoolhouse" in the north is white. This is the public school at Fort Fitzgerald, last in the Canadian north. From here on the only schools are those of the R.C. and Anglican Misions.
1946


N-1979-012: 0038
The paddle wheel era of the Mackenzie River basin is nearing its close. Within a year or two the paddle wheel will be history and modern screw steamers will take its place.
1946


N-1979-012: 0039
Near the settlements along the Northern Alberta Railways line from Edmonton to Waterways, machines have dug ditches through the muskeg, turing up rich peat as shown in this photograph. Peat is fuel and in stub forest country it brings warmth and life to isolated areas. Canada is the richest country in the world for peat, but these resources are least developed.
1946


N-1979-012: 0040
When the wind is high, the flat bottom barges and boats crossing Great Slave Lake must wait until the weather settles. This photo shows the stern-wheeler, S.S. Mackenzie River and barges wind blown for 3 days off Burnt Island. In 1942 this same boat was windblown for 14 days here. Many barges have been lost on Great Slave Lake, their rotting carcasses occasionally finding belated haven on island beaches.
1946


N-1979-012: 0041
In the evening, after working hours, Indian crew members of the river boats assemble at the pool parlour near the docks to shoot their last game for the summer. From here northward the only games are cards, interminally played on board in free hours (Waterways). R.A. Davies. The Great Mackenzie p. 14
1946


N-1979-012: 0042
It is not for nothing that the Fort Fitzgerald - Fort Smith portage has won world fame. During the war, huge barges and oil tanks were conveyed here on gigantic sixteen-wheel carriers. But even in 1946, 100 ton barges were easily taken from the upper to the lower rivers with speed and security. Barge 208 made the journey in a few hours, pulled by tractors.
1946


N-1979-012: 0043
The S.S. Athabasca River is ready to leave Waterways Alberta. The barges were moored, supplies piled high and the first mate (in peaked cap) talks over the situation with the boys.
1946


N-1979-012: 0044
Crews unloading the year's supplies at Fort Good Hope, while the usual crowd of indians sit motionless and watch the operations in silence.
1946


N-1979-012: 0045
Former "residential section" of the CANOL Oil Project at Fort Norman Wells. Photo shows the barracks used by construction crews, and the houses of Imperial Oil and army officials, now empty and left to northern inclemencies.
1946


N-1979-012: 0046
Rows of nissen [quonset] huts (above) forms towns of pre-fabricated "igloos" formerly used as barracks by the U.S. Army ay Camp CANOL on the Mackenzie River are today abandoned, desolate and rusting.
1946


N-1979-012: 0047
The refinery itself, most costly part of the former Abasand Oils Ltd. plant at Waterways, is still intact since the 1945 fire. This plant produced from 1000 to 1500 barrels of oil daily from tar sands, and could have produced infinetly more with additional equipment. Each cubic yard of tar sand weights a ton and produces one barrel of oil.
1946


N-1979-012: 0048
In Waterways, the railhead activity livens the waterfront. Hudson's Bay Company's and other barges are being loaded at the dock. They are too carry the year's supplies to the whole Canadian north west.
1946


N-1979-012: 0049
[Oil storage tanks, CANOL?]
1946


N-1979-012: 0050
[Another view of the Abasands oil plant at Waterways Alberta, not Canol]
1946


N-1979-012: 0051
[abandoned US Army equipment CANOL]
1946


N-1979-012: 0052
[Refinery and oil storage tanks, CANOL?]
1946


N-1979-012: 0053
[SS Northland Echo in dry dock]
1946


N-1979-012: 0054
S.S. Athabasca River
1946


N-1979-012: 0055
S.S. Athabasca River
1946


N-1979-012: 0056
S.S. Mackenzie River
1946


N-1979-012: 0057
[River barge on tractor]
1946


N-1979-012: 0058
[Padle wheeler on river, airplane overhead]
1946


N-1979-012: 0059
[man moving freight]
1946


N-1979-012: 0060
[paddle wheeler, close-up shot]
1946


N-1979-012: 0061
[man working on an engine inside a paddlewheeler boat]
1946


N-1979-012: 0062
[man looking across the Mackenzie River to the Ramparts]
1946


N-1979-012: 0063
[two men inspecting merchandise inside a store]
1946


N-1979-012: 0064
[husky dog]
1946


N-1979-012: 0065
[man butchering a carcass]
1946


N-1979-012: 0066
View of the Imperial Oil Company's refinery and storage tanks at Norman Wells
1946


N-1979-012: 0067
Half a century ago "York" boats piloted by brave men broke open the continent for man's use. That not much was done about it in the north is not the fault of the explorers and voyageurs. In its own sad way this huge hulk of a York boat personifies the abandonment of the great north for so many years. This photo was taken at Burnt Island in Great Slave Lake, NWT. Very few of these boats remain to tell the story of early transportation, and the Hudson's Bay Company plans to have the one shown here restored and placed in the Winnipeg Museum for future posterity.
1946


N-1979-012: 0068
This year 100 ton and 300 ton barges such as these two belonging to the Hudson's Bay Co., will carry lumber and oil drums to the north to aid in the development of the Canadian north west. The row boats seen in the foreground are being shipped to the indian settlements along the Mackenzie River.
1946